Table 3

Determinants of grade retention (logistic regression, OR and 95% CI)

BivariateFull modelParsimonious
Sociodemographic variables
Being a girl0.65 (0.40 to 1.06)0.67 (0.37 to 1.21)
Age at survey (vs 13–14)
 ≤120.56 (0.31 to 1.03)0.36 (0.15 to 0.84)0.37 (0.16 to 0.84)
 ≥151.30 (0.77 to 2.18)1.41 (0.73 to 2.72)1.54 (0.82 to 2.87)
Region of residence (vs North Rhine-Westphalia)
 North-west1.04 (0.50 to 2.17)1.19 (0.48 to 2.97)
 South-west0.80 (0.38 to 1.67)1.06 (0.41 to 2.76)
 Bavaria1.07 (0.49 to 2.33)1.08 (0.41 to 2.86)
 North-east0.78 (0.31 to 1.99)0.67 (0.19 to 2.41)
 Saxony, Thuringia0.93 (0.43 to 2.02)0.69 (0.25 to 1.90)
 Austria, other0.86 (0.23 to 3.17)0.91 (0.20 to 4.12)
Parental socioeconomic status (vs middle)
 Low2.24 (1.34 to 3.73)1.97 (1.03 to 3.76)1.94 (1.06 to 3.53)
 High0.69 (0.35 to 1.39)1.12 (0.44 to 2.87)1.11 (0.45 to 2.75)
Family situation (vs ‘classic’ family)
 Single parent2.92 (1.6 to 5.16)1.66 (0.77 to 3.54)
 Other or unknown1.74 (0.81 to 3.76)1.42 (0.55 to 3.65)
Immigration background0.43 (0.10 to 1.81)0.38 (0.07 to 1.98)
Single child0.92 (0.49 to 1.73)0.91 (0.41 to 2.05)
School-related variables
Advanced secondary education0.26 (0.15 to 0.46)0.28 (0.14 to 0.58)0.28 (0.14 to 0.57)
Periods off school (vs never or very rarely)
 Occasionally1.11 (0.61 to 2.02)1.29 (0.59 to 2.83)1.41 (0.69 to 2.87)
 Often3.89 (2.00 to 7.54)5.04 (2.08 to 12.26)3.93 (1.79 to 8.62)
Perceived compromised by inflammatory bowel disease at school (vs not compromised)
 Slightly, occasionally0.80 (0.47 to 1.35)1.22 (0.59 to 2.51)
 Substantially, frequently1.72 (0.93 to 3.17)0.66 (0.28, to1.57)
Health-related variables
Age diagnosis*disease duration (vs 10+, >2 years duration)
 0–5 versus 10+1.23 (0.61 to 2.48)2.14 (0.78 to 5.85)2.13 (0.81 to 5.61)
 6–9 versus 10+0.85 (0.47 to 1.53)1.46 (0.70 to 3.08)1.31 (0.64 to 2.69)
 10+,<2 years duration0.49 (0.25 to 0.96)0.43 (0.18 to 1.01)0.52 (0.23 to 1.16)
Poor or moderate current health status (vs good health)1.08 (0.67 to 1.74)0.55 (0.28 to 1.08)0.6 (0.32 to 1.11)
Active disease course (vs remission during preceding 12 months)2.11 (1.26 to 3.53)3.18 (1.56 to 6.50)2.69 (1.37 to 5.26)