Table 1

Study-level characteristics

Total number of included studies245100.0
N randomised, median (IQR)
N endoscopists, median (IQR)
Publication type
 Full publication19880.8
Sedation type
 Routine sedation, non-propofol agent8032.7
 Routine sedation, propofol3012.2
 On-demand sedation4418.0
 CO2 and/or water methods*8333.9
  CO2 methods3413.9
  Water methods4116.7
  CO2 and water methods83.3
 Complementary and complementary medicine4920.0
  Audiovisual distraction2711.0
  Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation41.6
 Colonoscope technology5321.6
  Colonoscopy dimensions176.9
  Magnetic endoscopy135.3
  Responsive insertion technology20.8
  Variable stiffness93.7
 Patient and endoscopist positioning135.3
  Endoscopist positioning10.4
  Patient positioning124.9
 Patient education62.4
 Postprocedure care72.9
Procedure setting
Funding source
 Mixed without industry124.9
 Any industry249.8
 Not funded2811.4
 Not identified14057.1
Measured patient characteristics
  • *Water methods include exchange, immersion and undifferentiated methods using water.