Table 2

Outcome types, scales and assessors

Outcome characteristicn%
Outcome type
  Anxiety difference10.4
  STAI difference93.7
  Gloucester Comfort Score41.6
  Maximum discomfort31.2
  Distension difference31.2
  GHAA9 satisfaction31.2
 Nausea difference10.4
  Pain difference72.9
  Maximum pain208.2
 Willingness to repeat6024.5
Outcome scale
 Numerical Rating Scale218.6
 Visual Analogue Scale11546.9
 Verbal scale41.6
 Not stated4618.8
Assessor description
 Research staff10.4
 Not stated5622.9
  • Percentages for outcome-related characteristics may sum to greater than 100 because some studies report multiple outcomes.

  • STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (state component); GHAA9, Group Health Association of America-9; NAPCOMS, Nurse-Assessed Patient Comfort Score.