Table 2

Proposed targets for therapeutic targeting in UC and/or ileal CD.

Protein nameGeneral functionsTranscription factorUC versus L1 expression trendUC versus non-IBD expression trendDruggability (two sources)Module hub?Drugs targeting the protein (Disease–Clinical Trial ID)ADRs
TUBB2A (Tubulin beta-2A chain)Key mediator in the pathogenesis of PSC-IBD65NoDOWNNoNoPaclitaxel (Psoriasis–NCT00006276)No
TUBB4B (Tubulin beta-4B chain)Tubulin reorganisation85NoDOWNNoYesPaclitaxel (Psoriasis–NCT00006276)No
TNFAIP3 (Tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3)Master switch mediating anti-inflammatory feedback loop in CD4+T cells86; Modulates intestinal autophagic response and inflammatory signalling87NoDOWNYesNoNo
GPR183 (G-protein coupled receptor 183)Upregulated in CD4 T cells during inflammation88; Regulation of interferon and autophagy activity89; Promotes interaction of CD4 T cells with other immune cell-types90NoDOWNUPYesNoNo
PRKCQ (Protein kinase C theta type)IBD susceptibility loci38; Modulation of T-cell differentiation and regulation of T-cell functions91 92NoDOWNYesNoSotrastaurin (Ulcerative colitis –NCT00572585); Sotrastaurin (Psoriasis–CT00885196)No
SOCS1 (Suppressor of cytokine signalling 1)Modulates IFN-gamma and IL-4 dependent IBD pathogenesis93; Downregulation in T cells of patients with IBD94; Mediation of type-1 IFN-STAT1 signalling94; Regulator of intestinal immune tolerance95NoDOWNUPYesNoNo
PTGER4 (Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype)Significant association between PTGER4 variants and CD38; promotion of IFN-gamma producing Th1 and IL-17 producing Th17cells96NoDOWNNoNoRivenprost (Ulcerative colitis–NCT00296556); CR-6086 (Rheumatoid arthritis–NCT03163966)Yes
SLC2A3 (Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3)Expressed in resting97 and activated CD4 T cells98NoDOWNUPNoYesNo
NR4A2 (Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group member 2 protein)Regulates differentiation of CD4 T cells99; intermediated marker for macrophage activation100; modulation of MIF and MAPK signalling101; T-cell homeostatic functions67YesDOWNUPNoYesNo
CXCR4 (C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4)Participates in epithelial barrier responses102; Expressed in T cells
on exposure to Th2 cytokines103; Downregulated in T cells during leucocyte removal filter (LCAP) therapy in UC patients104
NoDOWNUPYesNo-No
BCL6 (B-cell lymphoma 6 protein)T-cell proliferation in patients with IBD61; Mediates ATF3-depdendent protection against colitis105YesDOWNUPNoNoNo
  • ADR, adverse drug reaction ; CD, Crohn’s disease; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; LCAP, Leukocytapheresis; PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis; UC, ulcerative colitis.