Table 1

Patient demographics and comorbidities

No of patients (n)251
Age, year (IQR)70 (61–79)Comorbidities
Male sex, n (%)173 (68.9)Hypertension, n (%)145 (57.8)
Body mass index, kg/m2 (IQR)23.2 (20.2–27.1)Hypercholesterolaemia, n (%)80 (31.8)
Smoking status (MD=6)Liver disease, n (%)79 (31.5)
 Never smoker, n (%)82 (32.6)Myocardial infarction or congestive heart failure history, n (%)77 (30.7)
 Former smoker, n (%)74 (29.5)Diabetes, n (%)72 (28.7)
 Active smoker, n (%)88 (35.1)Metastatic malignancy, n (%)70 (27.9)
 Pack year40 (30–60)History of ulcer disease, n (%)52 (20.7)
Drinking habit (MD=5)Chronic pulmonary disease, n (%)50 (19.9)
 Moderate or high risk, n (%)103 (41.0)Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)47 (18.7)
 None, n (%)72 (28.7)Solid malignant tumour, n (%)44 (17.5)
 Low risk, n (%)35 (13.9)Renal disease, n (%)40 (15.9)
 Former, n (%)36 (14.3)Dementia, n (%)39 (15.5)
Charlson Comorbidity Index5 (3–7)Peripheral vascular disease, n (%)33 (13.1)
MMS score (MD=219)23 (18.5–27)Haematological malignancy, n (%)12 (4.8)
NRS-2002 (MD=143)4 (3–5)GI comorbidities
Living at home (n) (MD=5)236 (94.0)Cirrhosis, n (%)71 (28.3)
 Live alone, n (%)118 (47.0) CHILD A, n (%)9 (3.6)
 Live with family, n (%)118 (47.0) CHILD B, n (%)26 (10.6)
 Nurses at home, n (%)68 (27.1) CHILD C, n (%)34 (13.5)
Living in a nursing home, n (%) (MD=5)10 (3.9) Liver transplantation, n (%)2 (0.8)
No of exams MD, n (%)2 (0.8)
 1, n (%)186 (74.1)GI or hepatobiliary neoplasia, n (%)77 (30.7)
 2, n (%)47 (18.7) Gastric and oesophagus, n (%)23 (9.2)
 three or more, n (%)18 (7.2) Pancreatic, n (%)17 (6.8)
ASA score (n) (MD=1) Hepatocellular carcinoma, n (%)13 (5.2)
 1, n (%)0 (0) Liver other than hepatocellular carcinoma, n (%)3 (1.2)
 2, n (%)32 (12.7) Colon and rectum, n (%)9 (3.6)
 3, n (%)147 (58.6) Biliary, n (%)7 (2.8)
 4, n (%)67 (27.79 Jejunum, ileum and caecum, n (%)3 (1.2)
 5, n (%)4 (1.6) Other, n (%)2 (0.8)
ECMO or ECC, n (%)4 (1.6)Inflammatory bowel disease, n (%)2 (0.8)
Dialysis, n (%)17 (67.7) Ulcerative Colitis, n (%)2 (0.8)
 Chronic, n (%)5 (2.0) Crohn, n (%)0 (0.0)
 Acute, n (%)12 (4.8)
  • Expressed in frequencies and percentages (%) or median and interquartile range (IQR).

  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; ECC, extracorporeal circulation; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; GI, gastrointestinal; MD, missing data; MMS, mini-mental state; NRS-2002, Nutrition Risk Screening 2002 score.