Table 1

Commonly reported complications post-ERCP

ComplicationIncidence (%)Risk factors
Pancreatitis181.6–15.7History of post-ERCP pancreatitis, status postpancreatitic sphincterotomy, operator experience, suspected sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
Air embolism1 19UnknownAir insufflation, biliary intervention, trauma
Haemorrhage201.3Status postsphincterotomy, coagulopathy, use of anticoagulants <72 h of procedure, concurrent cholangitis
Cardiopulmonary (not including embolism)15 211Coronary artery disease risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking history, etc.
Infection22≤1Stent placement in malignant stricture, jaundice, failed biliary drainage
Perforation230.1–0.6Sphincterotomy, Billitroth II anatomy, intramural contrast injection
  • ERCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.