Table 1

Summary of published cases involving CSOs and GI tract fistulas—adapted from De Moura et al2

Study authorsPatient demographicsType of fistulaFollow-upAchievement of fistula closureComplications
Rabenstein et al (2006)70-year-old, femaleEsophagorespiratory6 monthsYesMigration of the device, however ultimately had fistula closure
Green et al (2008)69-year-old, maleEsophagorespiratory5 weeksYesNone
Boulougouri et al (2009)57-year-old, maleDuodenocutaneous5 monthsYesNone
Melmed et al (2009)82-year-old, femaleGastrocolic4 months then 18 monthsInitially failed closure, repeat with a different CSO led to closureDevice collapse into the colon at first follow-up
Coppola et al (2010)83-year-old, unspecifiedTracheoesophageal2 months then 10 monthsYes, but with self expanding stents after CSO migrationLarger fistula with migration of the device
Kouklakiset al (2010)58-year-old, maleGastrocolic1 weekYesSmall leak on imaging
Baron (2010)38-year-old, femaleGastrocolic6 weeksYesNone
Repici et al (2010)58-year-old, maleTracheoesophageal8 monthsYesNone
Lee et al (2011)68-year-old, maleEsophagorespiratory1 monthYesNone
Cardoso et al (2012)60-year-old, maleEsophagomediastinal6 weeksYesNone
Kadlec et al (2013)63-year-old, femaleEsophagorespiratory12 days then 9 monthsYes but with surgery after initial failure of CSONone
Kumbhari et al (2014)50-year-old, femaleLeak at gastrectomy staple line8 weeksYesNone
Kumbhari et al (2014)72-year-old, femaleTracheoesophageal6 weeksYesNone
Wiest et al (2014)40-year-old, maleLeak of sleeve gastrectomy1 yearYesNone
Odemis et al (2015)35-year-old, maleLeak at gastrectomy staple line6 monthYesNone
Cohen-Atsmoni et al (2015)Two patients, unspecifiedTracheoesophageal4 years, 2 weeksYes for patient 1, no for patient 2Patient two was critically ill and died of fungal sepsis
Subtil et al (2016)63-year-old, maleTracheoesophageal4 monthsYesNone
Fernandez-Urien et al (2016)51-year-old, maleEsophagobronchial9 monthsYesNone
Mejia Perez et al (2016)55-year-old, maleEsophagopleural4 weeksYesNone
  • CSO, cardiac septal occluder; GI, gastrointestinal.