Table 4

Management and outcomes

Frequency utilised (%)Success rate in stopping bleeding (%)
Therapeutic procedure for Heyde’s syndrome:
 Alternative treatments†2645‡
Efficacy of alternative treatments†:No of times attemptedSuccess rate in stopping bleeding (%)
 Balloon aortic valvuloplasty366.7§
 Clipping procedure757.1§
 Epinephrine injection742.9
 Supportive therapy alone633.3
 Argon plasma coagulation1625§
 Cauterisation/coagulation (unspecified)911.1§
 Colon/small bowel resection728.6
 Bentall procedure1100
 Desmopressin or vWF supplementation250
 Tranexamic acid10
nPercent of AVWS cases (%)
Resolution of AVWS following treatment1659.3
  • *‡§Within a section, values labelled with different superscripts differ (p<0.05), and those with a common superscript do not differ (p>0.05).

  • †Any treatment not involving valve replacement.

  • AVWS, acquired von Willebrand syndrome; SAVR, surgical aortic valve replacement; TAVR/TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve replacement/implantation; vWF, von Willebrand factor.