Table 2

Risk of severe UGIB in four different subgroups, the Netherlands, in 2013–2014, 2015–2016 and 2017–2018

SubgroupCalendar yearNoTotal noCumulative incidence, event/100 000 inhabitants (95% CI)Model 1
OR (95% CI)
Model 2
OR (95% CI)
A2013–201434 07117 112 982199.09 (196.99 to 201.22)1 (reference)1 (reference)
2015–201642 73217 269 164247.45 (245.11 to 249.80)1.24 (1.23 to 1.26)1.21 (1.20 to 1.23)
2017–201845 51617 473 459260.49 (258.11 to 262.89)1.31 (1.29 to 1.33)1.25 (1.24 to 1.27)
B2013–201423 02913 018 126176.90 (174.63 to 179.20)1 (reference)1 (reference)
2015–201629 56213 362 796221.23 (218.72 to 223.76)1.25 (1.23 to 1.27)1.21 (1.19 to 1.23)
2017–201832 50313 737 729236.60 (234.04 to 239.18)1.34 (1.32 to 1.36)1.26 (1.24 to 1.28)
C2013–201410 83711 678 22792.80 (91.07 to 94.56)1 (reference)1 (reference)
2015–201614 06211 935 659117.82 (115.88 to 119.78)1.27 (1.24 to 1.30)1.24 (1.21 to 1.27)
2017–201815 33812 229 473125.42 (123.45 to 127.42)1.35 (1.32 to 1.39)1.29 (1.26 to 1.32)
D2013–201442179 354 52645.08 (43.72 to 46.44)1 (reference)1 (reference)
2015–201657799 514 37160.74 (59.17 to 62.31)1.35 (1.30 to 1.40)1.31 (1.26 to 1.37)
2017–201861649 731 02363.34 (61.76 to 64.92)1.41 (1.35 to 1.46)1.34 (1.29 to 1.39)
  • All medications were identified through prescription reimbursement data, based on their ATC codes. People might have received several medications in a given year, for example, could have used NSAIDs and antithrombotic agents at the same time. Incident cases of severe UGIB were identified based on ICD-10CM codes in the hospital admission and death registry.

  • Subgroups: (A) total population, (B) restricted to the group of individuals without a prescription for NSAIDs, (C) restricted to the group of individuals who did not receive a prescription for NSAIDs nor antithrombotic agents, (D) restricted to the group of individuals without any medication that is either a risk factor for upper gastrointestinal bleeding or the indication for which the medication is prescribed is one. These are NSAIDs, antithrombotic agents, anticancer medication, systemic corticosteroids, drugs for stomach-acid related disorders, antidepressants, antihypertensives, antidiabetic medication.

  • Model 1: logistic regression model where incident severe UGIB was entered as a dependant variable and calendar year as independent variable. Model 2: was model 1 corrected for age (categorised), and sex imbalances between the cohorts.

  • ATC, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical; ICD-10, International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; UGIB, upper gastrointestinal bleeding.