Table 2

Various outcomes in LLDs during pre-COVID and COVID era

VariablePre-COVID-19During COVID-19P value
Total number of complications44 (33.3%)49 (29.16%)0.43
Grade 1 and 2
 Wound infections4 (3.2%)6 (3.6%)
 Wound haematoma2 (1.6%)1 (0.6%)0.12
 UTI4 (3.2%)2 (1.2%)
 Fever3 (2.3%)7 (4.2%)
 Paralytic ileus2 (1.6%)1 (0.6%)
Grade 3A
 Bile leakage7 (5.35%)7 (4.2%)
 Bile duct stricture01 (0.6%)0.15
 Postop bleeding3 (2.3%)4 (2.4%)
 Pleural effusion/aspiration9 (6.8%)10 (6 %)
 ERCP and stenting3 (2.3%)3 (1.8%)
Grade 3B
 Reopen6 (4.8%)5 (3%)0.45
Grade 4A
 Need ICU care/ventilator1 (0.85%)1 (0.6%)0.95
Grade 4B
 Multiorgan failure00
Grade 500
 SARS-CoV-2 positive0
 Mean ICU stay (days)3±12.53±10.15
 Mean hospital stay (days)6±25±20.17
 Discharge within 5 days91 (68.9%)160 (95.2%)<0.05
 Mortality00
  • ERCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography; ICU, intensive care unit; NS, not significant; UTI, urinary tract infections.