Table 1

Characteristics of study participants in SHIP and KORA

SHIPKORA
Total (N=1341)Total (N=386)
Age (years)50.4 (13.7)56.2 (9.1)
Women729 (54.4%)163 (42.2%)
BMI (kg/m2)27.4 (4.4)28.1 (4.9)
Waist circumference (cm)88.9 (12.9)98.5 (14.3)
Physically active960 (71.6%)230 (59.6%)
Smoking
 Smoker289 (21.6%)77 (19.9%)
 Ex-smoker486 (36.2%)169 (43.8%)
 Never smoker566 (42.2%)140 (36.3%)
Alcohol consumption
 No intake164 (12.2%)92 (23.8%)
 Moderate intake1091 (81.4%)191 (49.5%)
 Excessive intake86 (6.4%)103 (26.7%)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)125.1 (16.8)120.6 (16.8)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)76.6 (9.7)75.3 (10.0)
Hypertension539 (40.2%)132 (34.2%)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)5.5 (1.1)5.6 (0.9)
HDL-C (mmol/L)1.5 (0.4)1.6 (0.5)
LDL-C (mmol/L)3.4 (0.9)3.6 (0.9)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.2 (0.9, 1.7)1.2 (0.9, 1.8)
ALT (µkat/L)0.4 (0.3, 0.5)0.5 (0.3, 0.6)
AST (µkat/L)0.3 (0.2, 0.4)0.4 (0.3, 0.5)
GGT (µkat/L)0.5 (0.4, 0.7)0.5 (0.3, 0.7)
Glucose tolerance status
 Normoglycaemic932 (69.5%)239 (61.9%)
 Pre-diabetes281 (21.0%)95 (24.6%)
 Diabetes128 (9.5%)52 (13.5%)
PDFF (%)3.85 (2.32, 7.74)4.62 (2.63, 11,89)
FLD469 (35.0%)166 (43.0%)
Antihypertensive medication use369 (27.5%)98 (25.4%)
Lipid-lowering medication use109 (8.1%)41 (10.6%)
History of CVD93 (6.9%)NA
  • Values are expressed as the mean (SD) for normally distributed continuous variables or median (IQR) for non-normally distributed continuous variables, or n (%) for categorical variables.

  • Hepatic fat content was quantified on the level of portal vein by MRI PDFF. FLD (PDFF >5.6%) was defined according to the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL)-European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)-European Association for the Study of Obesity (EASO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  • ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; CVD, cardiovascular disease; FLD, fatty liver disease; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; KORA, Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PDFF, proton density fat fraction; SHIP, Study of Health in Pomerania.