Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients after propensity score matching

CharacteristicsPPI usersPPI non-usersP valueStandardised difference
N=6738N=6738
Female gender1488 (22.1%)1430 (21.2%)0.23−0.021
Age, mean (SD)64.2 (11.5)63.2 (11.1)<0.001−0.092
Chinese6353 (94.3%)6353 (94.3%)1.00<0.001
Tobacco use3117 (46.3%)3223 (47.8%)0.0670.032
Diabetes mellitus1941 (28.8%)2142 (31.8%)<0.0010.065
Hypertension3835 (56.9%)3987 (59.2%)0.0080.046
Dyslipidaemia3902 (57.9%)4078 (60.5%)0.0020.053
Cerebrovascular disease500 (7.4%)521 (7.7%)0.490.012
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease122 (1.8%)135 (2.0%)0.410.014
Previous myocardial infarction335 (5.0%)477 (7.1%)<0.0010.089
Previous CABG44 (0.7%)68 (1.0%)0.0230.039
Congestive heart failure312 (4.6%)356 (5.3%)0.0810.030
Atrial fibrillation or flutter228 (3.4%)230 (3.4%)0.920.002
Cirrhosis11 (0.2%)8 (0.1%)0.49−0.012
Baseline eGFR <50 mL/min/m2570 (8.5%)510 (7.6%)0.057−0.033
Baseline anaemia2025 (30.1%)1760 (26.1%)<0.001−0.088
GERD56 (0.8%)40 (0.6%)0.10−0.028
Peptic ulcer disease239 (3.5%)175 (2.6%)0.001−0.055
Helicobacter pylori eradication214 (3.2%)155 (2.3%)0.002−0.054
Acute myocardial infarction4997 (74.2%)4330 (64.3%)<0.001−0.216
Urgent or emergency PCI4452 (66.1%)3366 (50.0%)<0.001−0.331
Year of PCI<0.001−0.6803
 2004–2008358 (5.3%)702 (10.4%)
 2009–20121037 (15.4%)2554 (37.9%)
 2013–20162336 (34.7%)2346 (34.8%)
 2016–20173007 (44.6%)1136 (16.9%)
  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; GERD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; ; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PPI, proton pump inhibitor.