Table 4

Results of the regression models

Explanatory variables (Xi)Dependent variable (Y)
Direct costs*Loss of productivity*EQ5D-VAS†EQ5D-3 L utility†EQ5D-5 L utility†
Coefficientz (p-value)Coefficientz (p-value)Coefficientt (p-value)Coefficientt (p-Value)Coefficientt (p-value)
Disease condition
 Hepatitis (reference)
 Cirrhosis5.042.77 (0.006)0.181.26 (0.206)−4.79−1.86 (0.063)−0.03−1.64 (0.101)−0.05−3.06 (0.002)
 HCC19.668.56 (0.000)0.322.62 (0.009)−5.02−1.45 (0.147)−0.06−1.53 (0.127)−0.05−2.32 (0.021)
 OLT26.667.18 (0.000)0.452.30 (0.021)4.031.43 (0.154)−0.02−0.93 (0.350)−0.01−0.65 (0.518)
Aetiology
 HCV (reference)
 HBV−0.22−0.18 (0.858)−0.22−1.97 (0.049)8.714.79 (0.000)0.042.80 (0.005)0.033.65 (0.000)
 Other causes3.371.63 (0.103)0.100.59 (0.558)7.592.83 (0.005)0.052.26 (0.024)0.042.26 (0.024)
Age (years)−0.04−0.88 (0.377)−0.07−1.48 (0.140)−0.19−2.94 (0.003)−0.01−1.76 (0.080)−0.01−1.28 (0.201)
Gender
 Female (reference)
 Male−0.50−0.42 (0.672)−0.08−0.90 (0.367)3.922.31 (0.021)0.032.07 (0.039)0.022.08 (0.038)
Time (years) from diagnosis−0.07−1.50 (0.133)−0.01−1.55 (0.120)−0.05−0.59 (0.558)−0.01−1.32 (0.186)−0.01−1.10 (0.271)
Evaluation for liver transplantation
 None (reference)
 At least one9.103.98 (0.000)−0.26−0.15 (0.880)−0.70−0.20 (0.841)0.031.21 (0.228)0.021.26 (0.208)
Type of therapy
 None (reference)
 Therapies including antiviral4.882.95 (0.003)0.252.07 (0.039)−8.53−3.95 (0.000)−0.04−4.02 (0.000)−0.04−4.06 (0.000)
 Other therapies only18.5117.31 (0.000)0.312.06 (0.039)−10.17−3.95 (0.000)−0.08−3.30 (0.001)−0.06−3.69 (0.000)
Working status
 Paid/unpaid job, student (reference)
 Other0.920.79 (0.432)−0.86−0.86 (0.387)−2.20−1.37 (0.172)0.010.53 (0.598)0.010.89 (0.375)
HRQoL
 EQ-5D-VAS0.010.59 (0.556)−0.01−3.41 (0.001) –
Alcohol consumption
 No (reference)
 Yes3.131.69 (0.091)0.011.18 (0.239)0.010.83 (0.408)
Marital status
 Single, divorced, widow (reference)
 Married−1.18−0.10 (0.921)0.011.05 (0.292)0.161.60 (0.111)
Constant10.773.13 (0.002)1.995.60 (0.000)80.6220.34 (0.000)0.9436.73 (0.000)0.9342.84 (0.000)
  • *GLM link function specification: E(Y|X)=(constant+coeffi×Xi)2.

  • †Linear regression model: E(Y|X)=(constant+coeffi×Xi).

  • GLM, general linear models; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HRQoL, health-related-quality-of-life; OLT, orthotopic liver transplantation; VAS, visual analogue scale.