Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

AuthorCohortYearLocationAgeStudy designTotal (n)Cases (n)Neoplasia typeAntibioticIP/ OPLevel of exposureFollow-up (years)Risk estimate
(95% CI)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCPenicillinsOP>10 courses6.51.20 (1.11 to 1.31)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCMacrolidesOP>10 courses6.51.13 (0.94 to 1.36)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCTMP-SMXOP>10 courses6.51.14 (0.94 to 1.38)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCCephalosporinsOP>10 courses6.51.25 (1.02 to 1.52)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCTetracyclinesOP>10 courses6.50.96 (0.79 to 1.18)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCQuinolonesOP>10 courses6.50.98 (0.7 to 1.39)
Boursi25THIN practitioners2015UK>40Case–control103 04420 990CRCNitroimidazolesOP>10 courses6.51.67 (0.65 to 4.33)
Kilkkinen26Nationwide Finnish Registries2008Finland39–79Cohort3 112 6247513ColonAll antibioticsOP≥6 prescriptions71.15 (1.04 to 1.26)
Kilkkinen26Nationwide Finnish Registries2008Finland39–79Cohort3 112 6245126RectalAll antibioticsOP≥6 prescriptions71.03 (0.9 to 1.17)
Cao30Nurses Health Study2018USA20–39Cohort16 6421195AdenomaAll antibioticsBoth>2 months71.36 (1.03 to 1.79)
Cao30 *Nurses Health Study2018USA40–59Cohort16 6421195AdenomaAll antibioticsBoth>2 months71.69 (1.24 to 2.31)
WangNational Health Insurance Claims2014Taiwann/aCase–control640 1733593ColonAll antibioticsBothHighest tertile7.40.99 (0.81 to 1.2)
Wang27National Health Insurance Claims2014Taiwann/aCase–control640 1731979RectalAll antibioticsBothHighest tertile7.40.93 (0.73 to 1.18)
Dik29Achema Health Database2016Netherlands>18Case–control20 0174029CRCAll antibioticsn/a>7 prescriptions51.26 (1.11 to 1.44)
Zhang28Clinical Practice Research Datalink2019UK40–90Case–control166 05719 726ColonAll antibioticsn/a>60 days8.11.17 (1.1 to 1.23)
Zhang28Clinical Practice Research Datalink2019UK40–90Case–control166 0579254RectalAll antibioticsn/a>60 days8.10.85 (0.79 to 0.93)
  • *Estimates for exposure at age 40–59 years were not included in the analysis; exposure at age 20–39 years were used.

  • CRC, colorectal cancer; IP/OP, inpatient/outpatient; n/a, not available; THIN, The Health Improvement Network; TMP-SMX, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.