Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the included studies

AuthorsCountryType of HEArmAgentN (M:F)AgeCauses of cirrhosis
Precipitants of HE
Route of administration and dose
Rahimi et al12USAAny gradeInterventionPEG25 (16:9)55 (7)10/9/6/17/4/2/114 L orally or NGT
ControlLactulose25 (15:10)56 (11)9/10/6/02/6/4/1320–30 g orally/200 g rectally
Shehata et al13EgyptAny gradeInterventionPEG50 (22:28)56.42 (8.6)NA14/12/NA/23Up to 75 kg: three sachets (one sachet: 64 g) orally/NGT
>75 kg: four sachets (one sachet: 64 g) orally/NGT
ControlLactulose50 (30:20)54.5 (11.8)NA13/16/NA/2120–30 g orally+200 mL administered as retention enema
Raja et al15IndiaAny gradeInterventionPEG25 (20:5)62.12 (5.93)18/3/4/07/5/10/32 L of polyethylene glycol 3350 electrolyte solution (PEG) orally/NGT
ControlLactulose25 (19:6)60.48 (8.45)17/3/4/16/4/11/420–30 g orally or NGT
Bajwa et al14IndiaAny gradeInterventionPEG4739.51 (13.27)NA40/5/3/0500 mL every 4 hours through nasogastric tube
ControlLactulose4740.45 (14.10)NA42/6/5/030 mL four hourly through nasogastric tube
  • Age: mean (SD).

  • A, alcohol; C, cryptogenic; Co, constipation; GB, gastrointestinal bleeding; HE, hepatic encephalopathy; I, infection; M:F, male and female; N, number of patients; NA, Not available; NGT, Nasogastric tube; O, other; V, viral.