Table 3

Self-report Exercise Benefit and Barrier Scale (EBBS) scores

All patientsExercise status
InactiveActiveP value
Total EBBS score122.69±16.46117.66±15.91127.95±15.520.416*
Combined benefit items score83.24±13.6779.61±14.9687.05±11.130.189*
Combined barrier items score39.44±6.3438.05±6.0640.90±6.370.744*
Perceived benefit items
Life enhancement subscale
25: My disposition is improved by exercise2.85±0.662.77±0.772.93±0.510.253*
26: Exercising helps me sleep better at night2.85±0.692.75±0.782.95±0.580.110*
29: Exercise helps me decrease fatigue2.62±0.722.50±0.792.74±0.630.290*
32: Exercise improves my self-concept2.92±0.652.77±0.683.07±0.600.175*
34: Exercising increases my mental alertness2.90±0.692.77±0.742.02±0.600.302*
35: Exercise allows me to carry out normal activities without becoming tired2.81±0.642.73±0.622.90±0.660.649*
36: Exercise improves the quality of my work2.71±0.632.64±0.692.79±0.560.137*
41: Exercise improves overall body function2.93±0.662.86±0.703.00±0.620.315*
Standardised subscale score2.82±0.512.72±0.552.93±0.440.653*
Physical performance subscale
7: Exercise increases my muscle strength3.08±0.722.98±0.733.19±0.710.262*
15: Exercises increases my level of physical fitness3.12±0.713.05±0.713.19±0.710.696*
17: My muscle tone is improved with exercise3.06±0.642.89±0.693.24±0.530.035* †
18: Exercising improves functioning of my cardiovascular system3.06±0.622.86±0.673.26±0.500.020* †
22: Exercise increases my stamina3.14±0.653.02±0.733.26±0.540.330*
23: Exercise improves my flexibility3.09±0.713.02±0.793.17±0.620.449*
31: My physical endurance is improved by exercise3.03±0.662.91±0.683.17±0.620.214*
43: Exercise improves the way my body looks2.99±0.682.93±0.763.05±0.580.452*
Standardised subscale score3.07±0.522.96±0.573.19±0.450.795*
Psychological outlook subscale
1: I enjoy exercise2.80±0.782.50±0.853.12±0.550.001* ‡
2: Exercise decreases feelings of stress and tension for me2.85±0.782.66±0.833.03±0.700.136*
3: Exercise improves my mental health2.77±0.752.57±0.762.98±0.680.018* †
8: Exercise gives me a sense of personal accomplishment2.90±0.852.73±0.903.07±0.780.257*
10: Exercising makes me feel relaxed2.83±0.692.66±0.783.00±0.540.095*
20: I have improved feelings of well-being from exercise2.93±0.732.80±0.793.07±0.640.283*
Standardised subscale score2.84±0.622.65±0.693.05±0.460.024* †
Social interaction subscale
11: Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy2.49±0.722.30±0.732.69±0.640.032* †
30: Exercising is a good way for me to meet new people2.70±0.632.61±0.652.79±0.610.200*
38: Exercise is good entertainment for me2.76±0.772.68±0.832.83±0.700.539*
39: Exercise increases my acceptance by others2.40±0.742.39±0.842.40±0.630.252*
Standardised subscale score2.58±0.522.49±0.542.68±0.490.017* †
Preventive health subscale
5: I prevent heart attacks by exercising2.93±0.702.82±0.723.05±0.660.505*
13: Exercising increases my levels of physical fitness2.91±0.572.77±0.603.05±0.490.148*
27: I will live longer if I exercise2.85±0.692.68±0.773.02±0.560.114*
Standardised subscale score2.90±0.522.76±0.553.04±0.440.339*
Perceived barrier items
Exercise milieu subscale
9: Places for me to exercise are too far away3.00±0.752.91±0.773.10±0.730.124*
12: I am too embarrassed to exercise2.99±0.752.84±0.863.14±0.650.215*
14: It costs too much to exercise2.98±0.742.91±0.832.05±0.620.411*
16: Exercise facilities do not have convenient schedules for me2.87±0.722.84±0.712.90±0.730.821*
28: I think people in exercise clothes look funny2.97±0.762.86±0.773.07±0.750.643*
42: There are too few places for me to exercise2.77±0.782.61±0.812.93±0.710.160*
Standardised subscale score2.93±0.522.83±0.503.03±0.530.319*
Time expenditure subscale
4: Exercising takes too much of my time2.86±0.742.77±0.802.95±0.660.226*
24: Exercise takes too much time from family relationships3.15±0.623.09±0.603.21±0.650.253*
37: Exercise takes too much time from my family responsibilities3.10±0.633.00±0.653.21±0.610.179*
Standardised subscale score3.04±0.522.95±0.543.13±0.490.447*
Physical exertion subscale
6: Exercise tires me out2.09±0.711.98±0.662.21±0.750.465*
19: I am fatigued by exercise2.35±0.752.30±0.822.40±0.660.371*
40: Exercise is hard work for me2.28±0.822.18±0.902.38±0.730.149*
Standardised subscale score2.24±0.612.15±0.642.33±0.560.248*
Family discouragement subscale
21: My spouse (or significant other) does not encourage exercising3.03±0.802.91±0.803.17±0.790.491*
33: My family members do not encourage me to exercise3.00±0.802.84±0.863.17±0.700.214*
Standardised subscale score3.02±0.692.88±0.673.17±0.690.059*
  • ***Between group difference at p<0.001.

  • Scores for benefit subscale items are interpreted as higher values=greater benefits; barrier subscale items are interpreted as lower values=greater barriers.

  • Data presented mean±SD.

  • *Fisher’s exact test.

  • †Between group difference at p<0.05.

  • ‡Between group difference at p<0.01.

  • §Independent t-test.

  • ¶Mann-Whitney U test.