Table 1

Summary of the characteristics of the included studies.

Author, year, countrySample numberPatient age and characteristicsStudy designInclusion criteriaIndex test (multiplex PCR)Routine testing methodsAdjudication methods for discordant results
Deng J et al19 2015, China290 stool samplesMixed (median age of 25 months and ranging from 11 days to 83 years.)ProspectiveDiarrheal patientsLuminex xTAGBacterial culture, serotyping for Salmonella and Shigella, real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for viral detection, microscopic examination for parasite detection.Singleplex PCR andsequencing
Chhabra P et al2 2017, USA300 stool samplesMixed (from children and adults)RetrospectivePatient with acute gastroenteritisLuminex xTAG and FilmArrayTAC system, real-time PCR and sequencingNo
Alejo-Cancho I et al4 2017, Spain95 stool samples95 immunocompromised adult patients, with a median age of 52 years (46–64).ProspectiveAcute diarrheal patientFilmArrayRoutine microbiological techniques, including bacterial culture, C. difficile toxin study, microsoopy for parasite, virus antigen.Second multiplex assay (Allplex, Seegene, Korea)
Duong VT et al5 2016, Vietnam479 stool samples were collected from 92 adults and 387 childrenThe median age of the adult patients was 50 years (interquartile range [IQR], 33 to 64 years). In children, the median age was 16.5 months (IQR, 6.7 to 20 months).RetrospectiveDiarrheal patientsLuminex xTAGMicrobiological culture and real-time PCRNo
Khare R et al10 2014, USA230 prospectively collected samples and 270 additional previously characterized samplesUnclearProspective and retrospectiveStool samples submitted to laboratory for routine GI testing.Luminex xTAG and FilmArrayRoutine testing (e.g., culture, microscopy, antigen testing, and/or individual real-time PCR)Real-time PCR
Buss SN et al18 2015, USA1556 stool samplesMixed (adult and children)ProspectiveStool samples submitted with orders by the provider for stool cultureFilmArrayStool culture, PCRPCR and sequencing assays
Claas EC et al9 2013, The Netherlands901 stool specimensMixed (adult and children)ProspectiveStool collected in four hospitalsLuminex xTAGRoutine testing (e.g., culture, microscopy, EIA/DFA, or real-time PCR)No
Halligan E et al20 2014, UK2187 diarrhoeal stool samples.UnclearProspectiveDiarrheal patientsLuminex xTAGConventional tests including microbiological culture, microscopy, microwell enzyme immunoassay, immunochromatographic testNo
Mengelle C et al21 2013, France440 stool samples4 groups included: 102 adult organ transplant recipients (mean age, 50.6; median, 56; range, 17–75), 50 immunosuppressed children (mean age, 5; median, 7; range, 0–14), 56 children attending the neonatal unit (aged under 1 year) and 121 children attending the emergency unit (mean age, 2.80; median, 9; range, 0–16).ProspectiveDiarrheal patientsLuminex xTAGRoutine diagnostic methods (e.g., culture, microscopy, immunochromatographic assay, and multiplex PCR)No
Zboromyrska Y et al22 2014, Spain185 stool samplesTraveller's diarrheal patients with unclear ageProspectivePatients with traveller’s diarrheaLuminex xTAGRoutine diagnostic methods (e.g., culture, microscopy, mass spectrometry, and multiplex PCR)Conventional PCR and bidirectional sequencing
Huang RS et al17 2016, USA98 retrospective and 54 prospective stool samplesPediatric patientsRetrospective and prospectivePatient with acute gastroenteritisLuminex xTAG and FilmArrayConventional testing including stool cultures, immunochromatographic rapid tests, and singleplex RT-PCRNo