Table 3

Patients-related and hospitalisation-related factors associated with major findings. In the columns on the left, prevalence of each variable is compared between procedures finding a major abnormality versus ‘negative’ procedures. In the rightmost column, univariate analysis is provided as OR and 95% CI

CharacteristicsMajor abnormalities
n=52
‘Negative’ procedures n=49P valueUnivariate analysis
OR (95% CI)
Male sex, n (%)42 (80.8%)32 (65.3%)0.08
Median age, years (IQR)71 (62.5–79)68 (57.5–72.3)0.11
Pre-admission ASA score, n (%)0.99
 ASA 16 (11.5%)5 (10.2%)
 ASA 220 (38.5%)19 (38.8%)
 ASA 324 (46.2%)23 (46.9%)
 ASA 42 (3.8%)2 (4.1%)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension, n (%)30 (57.7%)23 (47.9%)0.33
 Diabetes, n (%)8 (15.4%)12 (25%)0.23
 Ischaemic cardiomyopathy, n (%)7 (13.5%)8 (16.7%)0.65
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%)2 (3.8%)8 (16.7%)0.050.2 (0.04 to 0.99)
 Active cancer, n (%)3 (5.8%)7 (14.6%)0.19
 Cirrhosis2 (3.9%)3 (6.2%)0.67
 CKD10 (19.2%)6 (12.5%)0.36
 COPD/asthma7 (13.5%)5 (10.4%)0.76
 Obesity7 (13.5%)5 (10.4%)0.76
Antiplatelet at admission17 (32.7%)11 (22.9%)0.38
NSAIDs at admission16 (30.8%)9 (18.8%)0.17
UGI endoscopies only12/37 (32.4%)4/27 (14.8%)0.15
Anticoagulant at admission5 (9.6%)11 (22.9%)0.10
Median D-dimer, ng/mL DDU (IQR)*2149 (567.8–3522.5)780 (508.3–1762.5)0.09
 D-dimer >1850 ng/mL DDU*18/37 (48.6%)7/31 (22.6%)0.033.25 (1.13 to 9.38)
Median platelet count, n x 109/L (IQR)*231 (177.5–304.8)275.5 (148.5–349.5)0.52
Symptoms, n (%)*n=49n=40
 Any GI symptom26 (53.1%)12 (30%)0.032.64 (1.10 to 6.35)
 Nausea9 (18.4%)5 (12.5%)0.56
 Abdominal pain17 (34.7%)7 (17.5%)0.07
 Vomiting9 (18.4%)3 (7.5%)0.21
 Diarrhoea10 (20.4%)3 (7.5%)0.13
 Anorexia7 (14%)4 (10%)0.75
COVID respiratory disease42 (80.8%)42 (85.7%)0.51
Hospital regimen0.84
 Intensive care unit, n (%)18 (34.6%)16 (32.7%)
 Subintensive care, n (%)34 (65.4%)33 (67.3%)
Treatments during admission
 Antibiotics/antimicotic43/50 (86%)42/46 (91.3%)0.42
 Antiviral27/48 (56.2%)15/44 (34.1%)0.032.49 (1.07 to 5.79)
 Hydroxychloroquine21/49 (42.9%)19/44 (43.2%)0.98
 Biologic therapy11/48 (22.9%)3/43 (7%)0.043.96 (1.03 to 15.33)
 Anticoagulation26/42 (61.9%)21/37 (56.8%)0.64
 Steroids15/50 (30%)13/45 (28.9%)0.90
  • *Among patients with available information.

  • ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; CKD, Chronic Kidney Disease; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NSAIDS, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; UGI, Upper Gastrointestinal.