Table 2

Characteristics of anti-TNF-α agent users and non-users in patients with immune-mediated diseases

VariableASIBDPsARA
Users n=1722Non-users n=6969Users n=7984Non-users n=9,2352Users n=5015Non-users n=13 330Users n=12 552Non-users n=86 631
Age at diagnosis, median (range)42 (19–65)49 (20–65)39 (19–65)48 (19–65)48 (19–65)51 (19–65)51 (19–65)53 (19–65)
Female, %45.046.149.755.150.954.375.274.0
Comorbidities at or before diagnosis of immune-related diseases, %
 Diabetes mellitus6.79.45.08.211.312.711.213.9
 Hypertension25.732.117.627.034.036.134.740.6
 Dyslipidaemia22.833.416.627.332.537.332.840.4
Medications, %
 Corticosteroids6.62.120.54.19.24.330.011.1
 Methotrexate5.61.10.30.025.614.544.913.5
 Other hepatotoxic medications*5.02.13.61.53.82.74.92.1
 Other biologics†0.20.20.10.12.43.14.31.4
Follow-up in years since diagnosis, median (range)1.0
(0.0–6.0)
1.4
(0.0–6.0)
1.6
(0.0–6.0)
1.7
(0.0–6.0)
1.2
(0.0–6.0)
1.3
(0.0–6.0)
1.4
(0.0–6.0)
1.3
(0.0–6.0)
Type of anti-TNF-α agent ever used, %
 Adalimumab59.2N.A.55.4N.A.59.2N.A.48.5N.A.
 Certolizumab2.3N.A.4.1N.A.2.4N.A.4.8N.A.
 Etanercept39.1N.A.0.1N.A.41.9N.A.46.3N.A.
 Golimumab4.9N.A.2.1N.A.2.8N.A.5.3N.A.
 Infliximab12.3N.A.48.3N.A.9.4N.A.12.4N.A.
Time to anti-TNF-α agent use (years)0.1
(0.0–5.4)
N.A.0.5
(0.0–5.9)
N.A.0.3
(0.0–5.9)
N.A.0.5
(0.0–5.9)
N.A.
Duration of anti-TNF-α agent use (years)0.6
(0.0–5.8)
N.A.0.7
(0.0–5.8)
N.A.0.7
(0.0–6.0)
N.A.0.7
(0.0–5.9)
N.A.
  • *Other hepatotoxic medications include azathioprine, leflunomide and/or sulfasalazine.

  • †Other biologics include abatacept, ixekinumab, rituximab, secukinumab, and/or tocilizumab.

  • AS, ankylosing spondylitis; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; N.A., not available; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.