Table 3

Incidence rates and adjusted HRs for liver outcomes with respect to periods of anti-TNF-α agent use in patients with immune-related diseases

OverallASIBDPsARA
Incidence rate
(per 10 000 person-years)
Composite outcome of cirrhosis, NAFLD or NASH
 Anti-TNF-α agent use76.492.788.779.065.0
 Anti-TNF-α agent non-use64.752.867.872.760.7
Cirrhosis
 Anti-TNF-α agent use8.75.815.77.84.8
 Anti-TNF-α agent non-use9.35.312.17.06.6
NAFLD or NASH
 Anti-TNF-α agent use72.686.277.271.668.1
 Anti-TNF-α agent non-use57.450.957.966.556.0
Adjusted HR with respect to anti-TNF-α agent use (95% CI)
 Composite outcome1.47
(1.27 to 1.70)
1.90
(1.09 to 3.31)
≤4 years:*
1.58
(1.22 to 2.05)
>4 years:*
3.41
(1.67 to 6.96)
1.25
(0.88 to 1.76)
1.30
(1.03 to 1.65)
 Cirrhosis1.47
(0.96 to 2.23)
1.69
(0.20 to 13.96)
1.99
(1.12 to 3.51)
1.54
(0.51 to 4.61)
1.10
(0.48 to 2.57)
 NAFLD or NASH1.53
(1.32 to 1.77)
1.81
(1.02 to 3.21)
≤4.5 years:*
1.59
(1.21 to 2.08)
>4.5 years:*
3.90
(1.60 to 9.48)
1.21
(0.84 to 1.74)
1.47
(1.16 to 1.85)
  • *Results of a piecewise Cox model due to a significant time interaction with anti-TNF-α agent use. After examination of the survival curve constructed in Simon and Makuch’s method, several cut-off time points were tested and the one with the lowest Akaike information criterion was selected.

  • AS, ankylosing spondylitis; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; PsA, psoriatic arthritis; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; TNF, tumour necrosis factor.