Table 2

Metabolic abnormalities in AFLD

MaleFemale
PastCurrentP valuePastCurrentP value
Abnormality63200423
Diabetes, % (n)17.5% (11)19.5% (39)0.8525% (1)17.4% (4)1
High BMI, % (n)47.6% (30)49% (98)0.8925% (1)56.5% (13)0.33
High blood pressure, % (n)61.9% (39)75% (150)0.05425% (1)52.2% (12)0.6
High blood glucose, % (n)25.4% (16)43% (86)0.01725% (1)39.1% (9)1
High triglycerides, % (n)68.3% (43)34% (68)<0.00125% (1)21.7% (5)1
Low HDL-cholesterol, % (n)30.2% (19)7.5% (15)<0.00175% (3)17.4% (4)0.042
Exerciser, % (n)7.9% (5)20.6% (41)0.0220% (0)21.7% (5)0.56
Never smoker, % (n)22.2% (14)10.3% (20)<0.00125% (1)39.1% (9)0.19
Ex-smoker, % (n)23.8% (15)57.2% (111)0% (0)30.4% (7)
Current smoker, % (n)54% (34)32.5% (63)75% (3)30.4% (7)
Age (years)46.5 (38.8–68.5)50 (44.0–55.0)<0.00146.5 (38.8–68.5)50 (44.0–55.0)0.73
BMI (kg/m2)22.9 (20.8–29.2)26.6 (21.9–33.8)0.922.9 (20.8–29.2)26.6 (21.9–33.8)0.33
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)109.8 (101.5–135.6)127.5 (115.0–134.5)0.002109.8 (101.5–135.6)127.5 (115.0–134.5)0.15
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)70.5 (63.5–85.0)76 (71.0–81.5)0.00370.5 (63.5–85.0)76 (71.0–81.5)0.31
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)98.5 (79–202)103 (96–119)0.03398.5 (79–202)103 (96–119)0.74
HbA1c (%)5.85 (5.2–8.38)5.4 (5.1–5.5)0.0025.85 (5.2–8.38)5.4 (5.1–5.5)0.24
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)188.5 (154.5–266)220 (195–252)0.02188.5 (154.5–266)220 (195–252)0.37
Triglycerides (mg/dL)126 (111.3–266.8)94 (74.0–120.0)<0.001126 (111.3–266.8)94 (74.0–120.0)0.79
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)44.1 (33.4–61.3)66 (55.0–86.0)<0.00144.1 (33.4–61.3)66 (55.0–86.0)0.05
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)107.2 (84.8–177.6)126.2 (93.4–163.2)0.29107.2 (84.8–177.6)126.2 (93.4–163.2)0.84
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)131.9 (107.5–230.9)154 (128.0–187.0)<0.001131.9 (107.5–230.9)154 (128.0–187.0)0.98
AST (IU/L)22 (17.3–56.8)20 (16.0–28.0)0.4622 (17.3–56.8)20 (16.0–28.0)0.42
ALT (IU/L)21.5 (14.3–52.8)20 (15.0–30.0)0.1821.5 (14.3–52.8)20 (15.0–30.0)0.63
GGT (IU/L)48.5 (23.5–112.5)35 (21.0–59.0)<0.00148.5 (23.5–112.5)35 (21.0–59.0)0.85
Alb (g/dL)4.4 (3.9–4.68)4.2 (3.9–4.4)<0.0014.4 (3.9–4.68)4.2 (3.9–4.4)0.27
Platelet (103/mL)25.7 (20.5–37.7)25.8 (20.4–28.5)0.5325.7 (20.5–37.7)25.8 (20.4–28.5)0.48
FIB4 index0.79 (0.59–2.45)0.96 (0.69–1.19)0.620.79 (0.59–2.45)0.96 (0.69–1.19)0.69
NAFLD fibrosis score−3.28 (−4.12 to −0.16)−2.32 (−2.75 to −0.94)0.097−3.28 (−4.12 to −0.16)−2.32 (−2.75 to −0.94)0.39
Alcohol consumption (mg/week)816.2 (642.3–1577.1)450 (329.0–550.0)0.44816.2 (642.3–1577.1)450 (329.0–550.0)0.005
  • The χ2 test was applied to categorical variables and the t-test was applied to continuous variables. Categorical variables are expressed as percentage (n). Continuous variables are expressed as median (IQR).

  • AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease; Alb, albumin; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BMI, body mass index; GGT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; HbA1c, haemoglobin A1c; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.