Table 5

Exploratory outcome: prospective assessment of disease complications

nAny disease-related complicationSymptoms of active IBDObjective inflammation (calprotectin, endoscopy, imaging)Steroid course for IBDChange of IBD maintenance medicationNeed for surgery/hospital admission
All IBD
 Cigarette smokers6932 (46%)31 (45%)29 (42%)8 (12%)15 (22%)14 (20%)
 E-cigarette users114 (36%)4 (36%)3 (27%)3 (27%)3 (27%)1 (9%)
 P value0.74
CD
 Cigarette smokers5328 (53%)27 (51%)26 (49%)5 (9%)14 (26%)12 (23%)
 E-cigarette users61 (17%)1 (17%)1 (17%)001 (17%)
 P value0.19
UC
 Cigarette smokers164 (25%)4 (25%)3 (19%)3 (19%)1 (6%)2 (12%)
 E-cigarette users53 (60%)3 (60%)2 (40%)3 (60%)3 (60%)0
 P value0.28
  • CD, Crohn’s disease; IBD, inflammatory bowel disease; UC, ulcerative colitis.