Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Gallstone ileus: a review
  1. Koichi Inukai
  1. Department of Acute Care Surgery, Sakai City Medical Center, Sakai, Osaka, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Koichi Inukai; koichi.sums{at}gmail.com

Abstract

Background Gallstone ileus is an important complication of cholecystolithiasis. In general, surgery is the treatment of choice for such cases, but clinicians face difficulty in the selection of an appropriate approach. Closure of a cholecystoenteric fistula can be achieved through one-stage or two-stage operation. Two-stage operation has a lower mortality rate than a one-stage procedure, but persistence of the cholecystoenteric fistula is associated with the risk of carcinogenesis and recurrence of gallstone ileus.

Objective This study reviews the different surgical approaches according to the impaction site of the gallstone, using data of previous studies by our group and clinical reports in the literature.

Conclusions First, for cases involving impaction at the duodenum, the cholecystoenteric fistula can be repaired in the same surgical field, and one-stage operation obtains favourable outcome; hence, one-stage operation is considered as treatment of choice. Second, for cases involving impaction at the small intestine, natural closure of the cholecystoenteric fistula or low mortality is expected; hence, two-stage operation may be performed, possibly using minimally invasive laparoscopy. Third, for cases involving impaction at the colon, natural closure of the cholecystocolonic fistula is unlikely, and patients have a high risk of reflux cholangitis due to faecal fluid; hence, one-stage operation is considered as treatment of choice.

  • abdominal surgery
  • small bowel disease
  • gallstone disease

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

View Full Text

Statistics from Altmetric.com

Footnotes

  • Contributors KI conceptualised the study, is responsible for data collection and analysis, and writing the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.